1880s — Southern states pass “Jim Crow” laws , consigning black passengers to segregated seating in railway cars and ultimately enforcing a barrier between blacks and whites in all aspects of public life.
1895 — Booker T. Washington delivers his “Atlanta Compromise” speech at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta.
1896 — In Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court rules the “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites was constitutional, legalizing segregation.
1909 — The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded.
1914 — The Great Migration of blacks out of the rural South to cities in the North begins. Between 1914 and 1920 500,000 or more blacks go north for jobs in industry and better opportunities.
1917 — The United States enter into World War I
1919 — The end of World War I; the beginnings of The New Negro Movement
The New Negro Movement began in the aftermath of World War I as a movement of cultural resistance. The name of the movement is drawn from Alain Locke’s essay “The New Negro,” and the collection of essays in which it was included by the same name. The name of the movement has come to be popularly known as “The Harlem Renaissance” since the 1970s when the term was coined by African American historian, John Hope Franklin.